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Expanding Tara Oceans Protocols for Underway, Ecosystemic Sampling of the Ocean-Atmosphere Interface During Tara Pacific Expedition (2016–2018)

Gabriel Gorsky 1 Guillaume Bourdin 2 Fabien Lombard 1 Maria Luiza Pedrotti 1 Samuel Audrain 3 Nicolas Bin 3 Emmanuel Boss 2 Chris Bowler 4 Nicolas Cassar 5, 6 Loic Caudan 3 Geneviève Chabot 7 Natalie Cohen 8 Daniel Cron 3 Colomban de Vargas 9 John Dolan 1 Eric Douville 10, 11 Amanda Elineau 1 J. Michel Flores 12, 13 Jean-François Ghiglione 14 Nils Haëntjens 2 Martin Hertau 3 Seth G. John 15 Rachel L. Kelly 15 Ilan Koren 12, 13 Yajuan Lin 5, 6 Dominique Marie 16 Clémentine Moulin 3 Yohann Moucherie 3 Stéphane Pesant 17, 18 Marc Picheral 1 Julie Poulain 19 Mireille Pujo-Pay 17 Gilles Reverdin 20 Sarah Romac 9 Matthew B. Sullivan 21 Miri Trainic 12, 13 Marc Tressol 22, 7 Romain Troublé 3 Assaf Vardi 13 Christian R. Voolstra 23 Patrick Wincker 24, 19 Sylvain Agostini 25 Bernard Banaigs 26, 27 Emilie Boissin 27, 26 Didier Forcioli 28, 29, 30 Paola Furla 28, 29, 30 Pierre Galand 31 Eric Gilson 29, 30 Stéphanie Reynaud 32 Shinichi Sunagawa 33 Olivier P. Thomas 34 Rebecca Lisette Vega Thurber 35 Didier Zoccola 32 Serge Planes 27, 26 Denis Allemand 32 Eric Karsenti 36
9 EPEP - Evolution des Protistes et Ecosystèmes Pélagiques
AD2M - Adaptation et diversité en milieu marin
11 GEOTRAC - Géochrononologie Traceurs Archéométrie
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
20 PROTEO - Processus et interactions de fine échelle océanique
LOCEAN - Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat : Expérimentations et Approches Numériques
28 SM - Symbiose Marine
Evolution Paris Seine
Abstract : Interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere occur at the air-sea interface through the transfer of momentum, heat, gases and particulate matter, and through the impact of the upper-ocean biology on the composition and radiative properties of this boundary layer. The Tara Pacific expedition, launched in May 2016 aboard the schooner Tara, was a 29-month exploration with the dual goals to study the ecology of reef ecosystems along ecological gradients in the Pacific Ocean and to assess inter-island and open ocean surface plankton and neuston community structures. In addition, key atmospheric properties were measured to study links between the two boundary layer properties. A major challenge for the open ocean sampling was the lack of ship-time available for work at "stations". The time constraint led us to develop new underway sampling approaches to optimize physical, chemical, optical, and genomic methods to capture the entire community structure of the surface layers, from viruses to metazoans in their oceanographic and atmospheric physicochemical context. An international scientific consortium was put together to analyze the samples, generate data, and develop datasets in coherence with the existing Tara Oceans database. Beyond adapting the extensive Tara Oceans sampling protocols for high-resolution underway sampling, the key novelties compared to Tara Oceans' global assessment of plankton include the measurement of (i) surface plankton and neuston biogeography and functional diversity; (ii) bioactive trace metals distribution at the ocean surface and metal-dependent ecosystem structures; (iii) marine aerosols, including biological entities; (iv) geography, nature and colonization of microplastic; and (v) high-resolution underway assessment of net community production via equilibrator inlet mass spectrometry. We are committed to share the data collected during this expedition, making it an important resource important resource to address a variety of scientific questions.
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Gabriel Gorsky, Guillaume Bourdin, Fabien Lombard, Maria Luiza Pedrotti, Samuel Audrain, et al.. Expanding Tara Oceans Protocols for Underway, Ecosystemic Sampling of the Ocean-Atmosphere Interface During Tara Pacific Expedition (2016–2018). Frontiers in Marine Science, Frontiers Media, 2019, 6, pp.650. ⟨10.3389/fmars.2019.00750⟩. ⟨hal-02407578⟩

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