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ARCHER is a High-Performance-Computing code developed at the CORIA laboratory. It stands for Academic Research Code for Hydrodynamic Equations Resolution. It also takes its name from the fish, the Archerfish (Toxotidae), known for preying insects by spitting a jet of water.

Archer is aimed at carrying Direct Numerical Simulations of two-phase flows may they be turbulent, incompressible or compressible, with phase change or in presence of solid boundaries. Data from Archer are used for probing the physical properties (either geometrical, morphological, topological, or dynamical) of different phenomena such as atomization, spray formation, dispersion, evaporation, phase separation, capture of solid aerosols. The close connection of the Archer developers with experimentalist is further noticeable. This wide knowledge serves for building or reinforcing physics-informed models, notably the Eulerian Lagragian Spray Atomization model (ELSA).

It was one of the first code worldwide, undertaking the simulation of liquid-jet atomization under a realistic injection configuration.



ARCHER solves on a staggered Cartesian mesh the one-fluid formulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. In this objective, the convective term is written in conservative form and solved using an improved Rudman’s technique. The latter allows mass and momentum to be transported in a consistent manner thereby enabling flows with large liquid/gas density ratios to be simulated accurately. To ensure incompressibility of the velocity field, a Poisson equation is solved. The latter accounts for the surface tension force and is solved using a MultiGrid preconditioned Conjugate Gradient algorithm (MGCG) coupled with a Ghost-Fluid method.

For transporting the interface, use is made of a coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid (CLSVOF) solver, in which the level-set function accurately describes the geometric features of the interface (its normal and curvature) and the volume-of-fluid function ensures mass conservation. The density is calculated from the volume-of-fluid. The dynamic viscosity depends on the sign of the level-set function. In cells containing both a liquid and gas phase, a specific treatment is performed to evaluate the dynamic viscosity.

Current work is targeting compressible flow, evaporation, lagrangian particles.

ARCHER is written in Fortran+MPI and PyArcher is a Python (Dask+Xarray) library written to pre/post process data for ARCHER.



Level set ELSA model LES Geometrical Double-pulsed femtosecond laser system Flow visualization Fiber medium DNS Direct Numerical Simulation CLSMOF Dynamique des fluides Diphasique Level set method Angle de contact Drops Suivi d'interface Center of mass Diesel spray Disperse/separated phases Incompressible flow Atomization Centre de masse Incompressible flows Immiscible two-phase flow DIPHASIQUE Airblast Gas kinetic scheme Crossow Atomisation primaire Computational geometry Collision Fraction volumique Turbulence Gauss- Bonnet formula Homogeneous isotropic turbulence Two-phase flow Multiphase flows Curvature Multiphase flow High speed flows Multiscale Benchmark Interface Curvatures Contact angle Immuno-evasion Interface capturing models Frontières immergées IBM Coaxial liquid jet Fragmentation Atomisation du carburant liquide VOF Interface capture Simulation numérique directe MOF CLSVOF Air assisted atomization Couplage Films liquides Hybrid moment of fluid-level set method Deformation Immersed boundary method IBM Imbibition Moment of Fluid method Injection Gas-liquid interface Altitude relight Vaporization Integral geometry Drop size distribution Coupling 76A99 COMBUSTION CHAMBERS Ghost fluid Cellular interactions Écoulements diphasiques Image processing Fluid mechanics Evaporation Diffuse interface models Chaos 35Q35 Transformation Criteria Computational fluid dynamics Diffuse interface 65D99 Coalescence Atomisation Compressible INTERFACE DIFFUSE Dynamics analysis Droplets Experimental analysis Aircraft engines Airblast atomization Direct numerical simulation Capillary instability Gouttes Primary atomization 53A17




The Archer project took shape in 2001 thanks to the impulsion of Alain Berlemont who supervised the first two PhDs (S. Tanguy 2001-2004, T. Ménard 2003-2007), sparking the first developments of the code. Since then, 11 PhD students, 7 post-doctorates and many Master students have contributed to its progress. It now constitutes a compulsory tool for many researchers of the CORIA laboratory (A. Berlemont, T. Ménard, P. Desjonqueres, J. Cousin, F-X. Demoulin, J. Reveillon, B. Duret, A. Poux, J.C.B. de Motta, F. Thiesset, C. Dumouchel) and is involved in many projects funded by either national (ANR) or international (Marie-Curie ITN) agencies.

The chart on the left retraces the main steps of the Archer project.





Current major contributers are:

  • Thibaut Ménard (code leader)
  • Benjamin Duret (compressible)
  • Jorge-César Brandle de Motta (lagrangian)
  • Alexandre Poux (numerics)





Main publications


Most recent publications

And more ...