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Resistance to antimicrobial drugs in different surface waters and wastewaters of Guadeloupe

Abstract : Objective: The first aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacteriaceae in different water environments of Guadeloupe and especially those impacted by waste water treatment plants (WWTP) effluents. The second objective was to characterize the genetic basis for antibiotic resistance of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates (ESBLE and AmpCE). Methods: We have collected 70 surface waters (river and sea samples) impacted or not by WWTP and 18 waste waters from 2 WWTPs in 2012 and 2013. We i) determined the total and resistant bacterial counts and ii) tested isolated Enterobacteriaceae for their antimicrobial susceptibility. We also studied the genetic basis for antibiotic resistance of ESBLE and AmpCE, and the genetic background of Escherichia coli. Results: In rivers, contamination with Escherichia coli and antibiotic resistant coliforms (ARC) increased from the source to the mouth. Highest levels of river contamination with E. coli (9.26 x 105 MPN/100mL) and ARC (2.26 x 108 CFU/mL) were observed in surface water sampled near the discharge. A total of 246 Enterobacteriaceae strains resistant to antibiotics were isolated, mostly from waste waters and from river water collected near the discharge. Among these strains, 33 were Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBLE) and 8 E. coli were AmpC beta-lactamase producers. All the ESBLE were isolated from waste waters or from river water collected near the discharge. The blaCTX-M gene was present in 29 of the 33 ESBLE strains, with 24 belonging to group 1. Numerous strains (68.7%) showed more than one acquired antibiotic resistance mechanism. E. coli strains belonged to different phylogenetic groups; among the B2 group, most strains belonged to the ST131 clone. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that many human activities can supply antibiotic-resistant bacteria in surface water. Nevertheless, WWTPs were the most important supplier of ESBLE in water environment of Guadeloupe.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, March 8, 2017 - 3:55:11 PM
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Stéphanie Guyomard-Rabenirina, Celia Dartron, Mélanie Falord, Syndia Sadikalay, Célia Ducat, et al.. Resistance to antimicrobial drugs in different surface waters and wastewaters of Guadeloupe. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2017, 12 (3), pp.e0173155. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0173155.t002⟩. ⟨hal-01485327⟩



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