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Land-use impacts on surface runoff and soil detachment within agricultural sloping lands in Northern Vietnam

Abstract : Two consecutive years of investigation on soil surface features, surface runoff and soil detachment within 1-m(2) microplots on 40% slope highlighted the effects of land-use change, vegetation cover and biological activity on the water pathways in Northern Vietnam. Three replicate plots were setup on each of five land-uses: cassava (CAS), grass fodder of Bracharia ruziziensis (BRA), a 3-year old fallow (FAL), tree stands of Acacia mangium and Venicia montana (FOR), and a fallow with regrowth of Eucalyptus regularly cut (EUC). The second year, two of the microplots under FAL and EUC were treated with herbicide (FALh, EUCh), one of them was burnt (FALh+b, EUCh+b). The highest yearly surface runoff coefficient of 16%, and soil detachment rate of 700 g m(-2) yr(-1) in average with a maximum of 1305 g m(-2) yr(-1) have been recorded under CAS. On FALh and FALh+b, runoff ratios were 8.7 and 13.5%, respectively and detachment rates were 86 and 389 g m(-2). On FAL and BRA the yearly runoff ratio varied from 5.9 to 9.8% but the detachment rate was limited at 24 to 35 g m(-2). FOR and EUC annual runoff was <= 3.1% and annual soil detachment <= 71 g m(-2). These values were very low compared to the values reported on steep slopes in Laos within similar climate and vegetation cover. The runoff and detachment rates underlined the importance of rainfall intensities, soil physical properties, soil surface features, soil vegetation cover and biological activity. The annual surface runoff was highly correlated to the soil surface crusting. CAS and BRA plots were prone to crusting especially after weeding at the onset of the rainy season, when the soil surface was still uncovered. Soil bioturbation (earthworm casting activity) was the second factor that explains local variation of surface runoff and soil detachment. The continuous production of earthworms casts on soil surface, especially on FOR and EUC microplots, induced a marked surface roughness and reduced the surface runoff. The production of casts was very limited in FAL and completely absent in CAS microplots. So it is evident that our results confirm the deleterious effects of cassava on soil and water conservation.
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Submitted on : Monday, June 15, 2009 - 7:40:24 PM
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Pascal Podwojewski, Orange Didier, Pascal Jouquet, Christian Valentin, Nguyen V. T., et al.. Land-use impacts on surface runoff and soil detachment within agricultural sloping lands in Northern Vietnam. CATENA, Elsevier, 2008, 74 (2), pp.109-118. ⟨10.1016/j.catena.2008.03.013⟩. ⟨bioemco-00395586⟩



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