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Role of the Interaction of BRCA2 and DDX5 in the DNA Damage Response

Abstract : Increasing evidence support the idea that proteins involved in RNA metabolism such as RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and RNA helicases are directly implicated in the DNA damage response (DDR). This activity is generally achieved through their interaction with DNA repair factors.BRCA2 is a tumor suppressor protein that plays an important role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR) as well as protecting stalled replication forks from unscheduled degradation; therefore, it is essential to maintain genome integrity. Interestingly, BRCA2 deficient cells accumulate DNA-RNA hybrids or R-loops, a known source of DNA damage and genome instability, providing evidence for its role in either R-loop prevention or processing. However, the specific role of BRCA2 on these structures remains poorly understood.A mass spectrometry screen to identify partners of BRCA2 performed in our laboratory revealed an enrichment of proteins involved in RNA metabolism such as RNA helicases. These findings led us to investigate whether BRCA2 could cooperate with these candidate interacting RNA helicases in processing DNA-RNA structures. First, we confirmed the interaction of BRCA2 and the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX5, which we found is enhanced in cells exposed to -irradiation. Then, we narrowed down the interaction to the first 250 aa of BRCA2 (BRCA2T1) and found that it is direct using purified proteins. In collaboration with A. Aguilera lab (Cabimer, SP), we could show that depletion of DDX5 leads to a genome-wide accumulation of DNA-RNA hybrids that is particularly enriched at DNA damage sites. DDX5 associates with DNA-RNA hybrids that form in the vicinity of DSBs. Interestingly, we found that BRCA2 is important for the retention of DDX5 at laser irradiation-induced DNA damage. Notably, in vitro R-loop unwinding assays using purified DDX5 and BRCA2 proteins revealed that BRCA2 stimulates the R-loop helicase activity of DDX5.A breast cancer variant of unknown clinical significance (VUS) located in BRCA2T1 (T207A) reduced the interaction between BRCA2 and DDX5 and led to the accumulation of DNA-RNA hybrids. Cells stably expressing BRCA2-T207A also showed a decreased association of DDX5 with DNA-RNA hybrids, especially upon irradiation. Notably, monitoring RAD51 foci to evaluate HR-mediated DSBs repair efficiency in either DDX5-depleted cells or in BRCA2-T207A cells resulted in a delayed kinetics of appearance of RAD51 foci upon irradiation suggesting an active role of BRCA2-DDX5 interaction in ensuring timely HR repair. In agreement with this, overexpression of the RNAseH1 ribonuclease, that specifically degrades the RNA moiety in DNA-RNA structures, partially restored RAD51 kinetics phenotype of BRCA2-T207A cells. Moreover, cells bearing BRCA2-T207A variant also showed a reduced number of RPA foci compared to BRCA2 WT expressing cells, a step that precedes RAD51 loading at DSBs.Taken together, our results are consistent with DNA-RNA hybrids being an impediment for the repair of DSBs by HR and reveal BRCA2 and DDX5 as active players in their removal.
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Submitted on : Friday, April 9, 2021 - 4:13:21 PM
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Gaetana Sessa. Role of the Interaction of BRCA2 and DDX5 in the DNA Damage Response. Cancer. Université Paris-Saclay, 2020. English. ⟨NNT : 2020UPASS116⟩. ⟨tel-03184571v2⟩

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