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Journal Articles International journal of bifurcation and chaos in applied sciences and engineering Year : 2023

Oscillating behavior of a compartmental model with retarded noisy dynamic infection rate

Abstract

Our study is based on an epidemiological compartmental model, the SIRS model. In the SIRS model, each individual is in one of the states susceptible (S), infected(I) or recovered (R), depending on its state of health. In compartment R, an individual is assumed to stay immune within a finite time interval only and then transfers back to the S compartment. We extend the model and allow for a feedback control of the infection rate by mitigation measures which are related to the number of infections. A finite response time of the feedback mechanism is supposed that changes the low-dimensional SIRS model into an infinite-dimensional set of integro-differential (delay-differential) equations. It turns out that the retarded feedback renders the originally stable endemic equilibrium of SIRS (stable focus) into an unstable focus if the delay exceeds a certain critical value. Nonlinear solutions show persistent regular oscillations of the number of infected and susceptible individuals. In the last part we include noise effects from the environment and allow for a fluctuating infection rate. This results in multiplicative noise terms and our model turns into a set of stochastic nonlinear integro-differential equations. Numerical solutions reveal an irregular behavior of repeated disease outbreaks in the form of infection waves with a variety of frequencies and amplitudes.
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Dates and versions

hal-03961657 , version 1 (29-01-2023)

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Michael Bestehorn, Thomas M. Michelitsch. Oscillating behavior of a compartmental model with retarded noisy dynamic infection rate. International journal of bifurcation and chaos in applied sciences and engineering , 2023, 33 (05), pp.2350056. ⟨10.1142/S0218127423500566⟩. ⟨hal-03961657⟩
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