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Journal Articles Entropy Year : 2024

Stochastic compartment model with mortality and its application to epidemic spreading in complex networks

Abstract

We study epidemic spreading in complex networks by a multiple random walker approach. Each walker performs an independent simple Markovian random walk on a complex undirected (ergodic) random graph where we focus on Barab\'asi-Albert (BA), Erd\"os-R\'enyi (ER) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) types. Both, walkers and nodes can be either susceptible (S) or infected and infectious (I) representing their states of health. Susceptible nodes may be infected by visits of infected walkers, and susceptible walkers may be infected by visiting infected nodes. No direct transmission of the disease among walkers (or among nodes) is possible. This model mimics a large class of diseases such as Dengue and Malaria with transmission of the disease via vectors (mosquitos). Infected walkers may die during the time span of their infection introducing an additional compartment D of dead walkers. Infected nodes never die and always recover from their infection after a random finite time. We derive stochastic evolution equations for the mean-field compartmental populations with mortality of walkers and delayed transitions among the compartments. From linear stability analysis, we derive the basic reproduction numbers R M , R 0 with and without mortality, respectively, and prove that R M < R 0 . For R M , R 0 > 1 the healthy state is unstable whereas for zero mortality a stable endemic equilibrium exists (independent of the initial conditions) which we obtained explicitly. We observe that the solutions of the random walk simulations in the considered networks agree well with the mean-field solutions for strongly connected graph topologies, whereas less well for weakly connected structures and for diseases with high mortality.
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Dates and versions

hal-04511807 , version 1 (19-03-2024)

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Teo Granger, Thomas M. Michelitsch, Michael Bestehorn, Alejandro P. Riascos, Bernard A. Collet. Stochastic compartment model with mortality and its application to epidemic spreading in complex networks. Entropy, 2024, 26 (262), https:// doi.org/10.3390/e26050362. ⟨10.3390/e26050362⟩. ⟨hal-04511807⟩
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